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Ginto
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 17, 2017 5:19 pm    Post subject: Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.).

http://rxiv.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf or
http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf


viXra: http://rxiv.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Volodymyr-Bezverkhniy/e/B01I41EHHS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1471783006&sr=1-1


1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

The aromatic bond is a three-electron bond in flat cyclic systems with a specific interaction of electrons through the cycle.
In benzene formed a new type of chemical bonds - an aromatic bond (C-C), which has a multiplicity of more than 1.5 (1.66) (multiplicity C-C in ethane = 1 and multiplicity C-C in ethylene = 2). It is not correct to provide an aromatic bond as a combination of single and double bond (for simplicity we can) is a new type of chemical bonding that explains the resistance of benzene and chemical properties and other properties in aromatic compounds.

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å).

Using the concept three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 and take account of the spin of each electron leads to very good results in the description of the benzene molecule and explain the aromaticity in general. With the help of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 can be represented by a real formula of many organic and inorganic molecules without the aid of virtual structures (actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond, calculate the delocalization energy).

It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance (multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole, C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P). Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.

Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.

Quantum mechanics defines what such a chemical bond. Without quantum mechanics it is impossible.
Classical concepts to explain what the chemical bond is impossible (and this despite the existence of four fundamental interactions: the electromagnetic (most important for chemistry), strong, weak, gravity). It is obvious that when the chemical bond formation quantum effects are important. That is, to form a chemical bond is not enough to have two specific atoms with unpaired electrons and the four fundamental interactions, but still need these two atoms placed at a certain distance where quantum effects "help" form a chemical bond. Without quantum effects these baselines (atoms and fundamental interactions) is not enough to form a chemical bond. It is obvious that when the chemical bonds forming, important not only the properties of atoms and fundamental interactions but also the structure of the space-time at distances of several angstroms (scale chemical bond). Quantum effects of the space-time begin to affect the interaction of atoms (the house begins to affect the interaction between residents), without it, explaining the formation of a chemical bond is impossible.

Theoretical justification of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 which can be explained by the structure of the benzene molecule and many other organic and inorganic compounds.
Justification of three-electron bond given here:

1. pp. 5-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf
2. pp. 1-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the Interfering Universe.

p. 6: http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

Model of the Interfering Universe:

"Now, let's try to explain the possibility of interaction of electrons and other particles, which are in an entangled quantum state, what presupposes the existence of any distance between them, for example, 1 m, or 1000 km, it is not essential, the distance can be arbitrarily long. And this distance does not affect the entangled quantum system, the particles of which miraculously know the characteristics of each other. To do this we'll have to simulate our Universe. So, let's imagine our infinite Universe as a finite (for convenience of description) object, such as an ordinary cube. Now let's imagine this cube empty of matter, space-time, and in general of any fields and other characteristics, there is no matter, and, in principle, anything. Now, let's "insert" an electron in the cube, and at once in the Universe there will appear space-time, weight, variety of fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, and so on), energy and other characteristics. After the electron appeared in the Universe, it came to life, and was born in principle. And now let's specify that the electron is not simply located in the Universe and has specific location and spot size, and its fields (electromagnetic, gravitational, and other existing and unknown) occupy and fill the whole Universe, the entire space-time continuum, our whole infinite Universe. Now let's step by step fill our cube (our Universe) with all elementary particles that exist in the Universe. And there is one condition that must be followed: each elementary particle occupies entirely and completely the whole Universe by its fields, energy and other characteristics, that is each particle completely fills (literally) all the infinite Universe, but at the same time it has certain coordinates (the most probable place of elementary particle detection).
With this description, our Universe, which is infinite in all senses (spatial, energy, time, etc.), will represent a giant interference of any and all elementary particles, a model of the "Interfering Universe". And now the main thing: since each elementary particle occupies (fills) the whole Universe (and at the same time is in a particular place with certain coordinates (its most probabilistic definition in this point, or more precisely in this region of space)), then there is nothing unusual in the fact that when forming an entangled quantum state each elementary particle "knows" the characteristics of its partner in a quantum state. Elementary particles "know" everything about all the other elementary particles since they fill the same Universe (it is their common home). They (elementary particles) constantly interact, interfere, but depending on their characteristics and the characteristics of their partners (coordinates, mass, energy, field, distances between the peak densities of detection, wave characteristics, etc.) form stable bonds (most varied and not only energy) only with certain partner particles.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that our Universe, our world more precisely, is an interference pattern of each and every particle in the Universe. Now the wave-particle duality of particles, probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena and other quantum effects of the microcosm become intuitively clear. For example, why there is a non-zero probability of finding an electron, which rotates in a specific hydrogen atom (which is in a particular laboratory), for example, on the Moon. And it is both on the Moon and on the Sun, as well as anywhere in the space of our Universe; it really fills (takes) the whole Universe. But its presence in a particular area, "the density of presence", so to speak (probability of detection), is different at different points of the space.
In the interfering Universe, all elementary particles "know everything" about all the other elementary particles (since they are in the same Universe), but not all of them are suitable for all in terms of formation of various bonds (in energy and other senses). Therefore, only those particles interact, which have a well-defined
set of characteristics for each other and for specific types of interactions. And our world forms as a result of such interactions."

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra):
http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

Review. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Scribd):
https://www.scribd.com/user/289277020/Bezverkhniy-Volodymyr#

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Amazon): https://www.amazon.com/Volodymyr-Bezverkhniy/e/B01I41EHHS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1471783006&sr=1-1

This screenshots (foto) (most with explanation) see by this link.
Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Archive.org): https://archive.org/details/@threeelectronbond

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Ginto
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 28, 2017 1:59 am    Post subject: The reason of the formation of the chemical bond. Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

The reason of the formation of the chemical bond.

The reason for the formation of the chemical bond is still not clear, in fact, there is no physical justification, as it was at the time of Bohr, since the formation of a chemical bond does not follow from the four fundamental interactions. Just imagine, a chemical bond "does not understand" that it can not be explained normally and quietly exists Smile. A full explanation of the chemical bond can only be provided by quantum mechanics (in the future), classical approaches simply do not work.

To understand this, it is necessary not to forget what L. Pauling did (L. Pauling, "The nature of the chemical bond", and the work of L. Pauling: Chem. Rev. 5, 173 (1928)), namely Pauling analyzed the interaction of the hydrogen atom and the proton in the entire range of lengths (he admitted that the hydrogen atom and H + on the approach are preserved and showed that the bond is not formed in this case (since there is no exchange interaction or resonance by Pauling)).

Only one of the above-mentioned facts actually destroys the classical approach (attraction and repulsion by Coulomb) to explaining the chemical bond. There inevitably follows that the chemical bond is a quantum-mechanical effect and no other.

Imagine a system with two protons and one electron, but if it is treated as a hydrogen atom and a proton, then the bond can not form over the whole range of lengths. But, as Burrau showed, the bond in H2 + is formed (if we consider the system as two protons and one electron), and no one particularly doubts this, since H2 + exists. I particularly emphasize that there is only one electron (there is no inter-electronic repulsion, etc.).

After this fact, further discussions can not be continued, they do not make sense (especially to apply this to the explanation of two-electron bond or aromatic, this is a slightly different level of complexity). But nevertheless, it should be noted that quantum mechanics introduced the concept of "exchange interaction", which had no physical justification (since no fundamental interactions are altered in the interchange of electrons, but should, if a bond is formed) explained the chemical bond (more accurately, "disguised" chemical bond into the quantum-mechanical effect of the "exchange interaction"), by this, confirming that the chemical bond is indeed a quantum-mechanical effect.

The science of chemical bonding is only at the beginning of it's journey, and it is for today's students to make the most significant contribution to the theory of chemical bonding. And this will lead to fundamental changes in understanding both chemistry and physics.

On the basis of modern concepts of quantum mechanics, chemical bonding can not be explained, fundamental assumptions are needed in quantum mechanics itself ...

L. Pauling "The application of the quantum mechanics to the structure of the Hydrogen molecule and Hydrogen molecule-ion and to related problems" Chem. Rev. 5, No. 2, p. 173, June (1928).



Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.).
http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych
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