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Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond

 
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Ginto
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 17, 2017 5:19 pm    Post subject: Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

9. Review (127 pages). Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (93 p.).

http://rxiv.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf or
http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf


viXra: http://rxiv.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Volodymyr-Bezverkhniy/e/B01I41EHHS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1471783006&sr=1-1


1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (93 p.). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

9. Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

The aromatic bond is a three-electron bond in flat cyclic systems with a specific interaction of electrons through the cycle.
In benzene formed a new type of chemical bonds - an aromatic bond (C-C), which has a multiplicity of more than 1.5 (1.66) (multiplicity C-C in ethane = 1 and multiplicity C-C in ethylene = 2). It is not correct to provide an aromatic bond as a combination of single and double bond (for simplicity we can) is a new type of chemical bonding that explains the resistance of benzene and chemical properties and other properties in aromatic compounds.

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å).

Using the concept three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 and take account of the spin of each electron leads to very good results in the description of the benzene molecule and explain the aromaticity in general. With the help of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 can be represented by a real formula of many organic and inorganic molecules without the aid of virtual structures (actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond, calculate the delocalization energy).

It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance (multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole, C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P). Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.

Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.

Quantum mechanics defines what such a chemical bond. Without quantum mechanics it is impossible.
Classical concepts to explain what the chemical bond is impossible (and this despite the existence of four fundamental interactions: the electromagnetic (most important for chemistry), strong, weak, gravity). It is obvious that when the chemical bond formation quantum effects are important. That is, to form a chemical bond is not enough to have two specific atoms with unpaired electrons and the four fundamental interactions, but still need these two atoms placed at a certain distance where quantum effects "help" form a chemical bond. Without quantum effects these baselines (atoms and fundamental interactions) is not enough to form a chemical bond. It is obvious that when the chemical bonds forming, important not only the properties of atoms and fundamental interactions but also the structure of the space-time at distances of several angstroms (scale chemical bond). Quantum effects of the space-time begin to affect the interaction of atoms (the house begins to affect the interaction between residents), without it, explaining the formation of a chemical bond is impossible.

Theoretical justification of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 which can be explained by the structure of the benzene molecule and many other organic and inorganic compounds.
Justification of three-electron bond given here:

1. pp. 5-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf
2. pp. 1-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the Interfering Universe.

p. 6: http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

Model of the Interfering Universe:

"Now, let's try to explain the possibility of interaction of electrons and other particles, which are in an entangled quantum state, what presupposes the existence of any distance between them, for example, 1 m, or 1000 km, it is not essential, the distance can be arbitrarily long. And this distance does not affect the entangled quantum system, the particles of which miraculously know the characteristics of each other. To do this we'll have to simulate our Universe. So, let's imagine our infinite Universe as a finite (for convenience of description) object, such as an ordinary cube. Now let's imagine this cube empty of matter, space-time, and in general of any fields and other characteristics, there is no matter, and, in principle, anything. Now, let's "insert" an electron in the cube, and at once in the Universe there will appear space-time, weight, variety of fields (gravitational, electromagnetic, and so on), energy and other characteristics. After the electron appeared in the Universe, it came to life, and was born in principle. And now let's specify that the electron is not simply located in the Universe and has specific location and spot size, and its fields (electromagnetic, gravitational, and other existing and unknown) occupy and fill the whole Universe, the entire space-time continuum, our whole infinite Universe. Now let's step by step fill our cube (our Universe) with all elementary particles that exist in the Universe. And there is one condition that must be followed: each elementary particle occupies entirely and completely the whole Universe by its fields, energy and other characteristics, that is each particle completely fills (literally) all the infinite Universe, but at the same time it has certain coordinates (the most probable place of elementary particle detection).
With this description, our Universe, which is infinite in all senses (spatial, energy, time, etc.), will represent a giant interference of any and all elementary particles, a model of the "Interfering Universe". And now the main thing: since each elementary particle occupies (fills) the whole Universe (and at the same time is in a particular place with certain coordinates (its most probabilistic definition in this point, or more precisely in this region of space)), then there is nothing unusual in the fact that when forming an entangled quantum state each elementary particle "knows" the characteristics of its partner in a quantum state. Elementary particles "know" everything about all the other elementary particles since they fill the same Universe (it is their common home). They (elementary particles) constantly interact, interfere, but depending on their characteristics and the characteristics of their partners (coordinates, mass, energy, field, distances between the peak densities of detection, wave characteristics, etc.) form stable bonds (most varied and not only energy) only with certain partner particles.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that our Universe, our world more precisely, is an interference pattern of each and every particle in the Universe. Now the wave-particle duality of particles, probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena and other quantum effects of the microcosm become intuitively clear. For example, why there is a non-zero probability of finding an electron, which rotates in a specific hydrogen atom (which is in a particular laboratory), for example, on the Moon. And it is both on the Moon and on the Sun, as well as anywhere in the space of our Universe; it really fills (takes) the whole Universe. But its presence in a particular area, "the density of presence", so to speak (probability of detection), is different at different points of the space.
In the interfering Universe, all elementary particles "know everything" about all the other elementary particles (since they are in the same Universe), but not all of them are suitable for all in terms of formation of various bonds (in energy and other senses). Therefore, only those particles interact, which have a well-defined
set of characteristics for each other and for specific types of interactions. And our world forms as a result of such interactions."

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra):
http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

Review. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Scribd):
https://www.scribd.com/user/289277020/Bezverkhniy-Volodymyr#

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Amazon): https://www.amazon.com/Volodymyr-Bezverkhniy/e/B01I41EHHS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1471783006&sr=1-1

This screenshots (foto) (most with explanation) see by this link.
Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Archive.org): https://archive.org/details/@threeelectronbond

What think?


Last edited by Ginto on Wed Nov 01, 2017 5:43 pm; edited 4 times in total
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 28, 2017 1:59 am    Post subject: The reason of the formation of the chemical bond. Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

The reason of the formation of the chemical bond.

The reason for the formation of the chemical bond is still not clear, in fact, there is no physical justification, as it was at the time of Bohr, since the formation of a chemical bond does not follow from the four fundamental interactions. Just imagine, a chemical bond "does not understand" that it can not be explained normally and quietly exists Smile. A full explanation of the chemical bond can only be provided by quantum mechanics (in the future), classical approaches simply do not work.

To understand this, it is necessary not to forget what L. Pauling did (L. Pauling, "The nature of the chemical bond", and the work of L. Pauling: Chem. Rev. 5, 173 (1928)), namely Pauling analyzed the interaction of the hydrogen atom and the proton in the entire range of lengths (he admitted that the hydrogen atom and H + on the approach are preserved and showed that the bond is not formed in this case (since there is no exchange interaction or resonance by Pauling)).

Only one of the above-mentioned facts actually destroys the classical approach (attraction and repulsion by Coulomb) to explaining the chemical bond. There inevitably follows that the chemical bond is a quantum-mechanical effect and no other.

Imagine a system with two protons and one electron, but if it is treated as a hydrogen atom and a proton, then the bond can not form over the whole range of lengths. But, as Burrau showed, the bond in H2 + is formed (if we consider the system as two protons and one electron), and no one particularly doubts this, since H2 + exists. I particularly emphasize that there is only one electron (there is no inter-electronic repulsion, etc.).

After this fact, further discussions can not be continued, they do not make sense (especially to apply this to the explanation of two-electron bond or aromatic, this is a slightly different level of complexity). But nevertheless, it should be noted that quantum mechanics introduced the concept of "exchange interaction", which had no physical justification (since no fundamental interactions are altered in the interchange of electrons, but should, if a bond is formed) explained the chemical bond (more accurately, "disguised" chemical bond into the quantum-mechanical effect of the "exchange interaction"), by this, confirming that the chemical bond is indeed a quantum-mechanical effect.

The science of chemical bonding is only at the beginning of it's journey, and it is for today's students to make the most significant contribution to the theory of chemical bonding. And this will lead to fundamental changes in understanding both chemistry and physics.

On the basis of modern concepts of quantum mechanics, chemical bonding can not be explained, fundamental assumptions are needed in quantum mechanics itself ...

L. Pauling "The application of the quantum mechanics to the structure of the Hydrogen molecule and Hydrogen molecule-ion and to related problems" Chem. Rev. 5, No. 2, p. 173, June (1928).



Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

9. Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (93 p.). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

9. Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych


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Ginto
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 12, 2017 2:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

The material about the three-electron bond is published in the American scientific peer-reviewed journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) in the work entitled "Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments".

link 1: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

link 2: https://www.omicsonline.org/ArchiveOCCR/articleinpress-organic-chemistry-current-research-open-access.php

Reference about the OMICS group which includes the journal "Organic Chemistry. Current Research":

"OMICS International organizations 3000+ Global Conferences series Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members."

link: https://www.omicsonline.org/organic-chemistry-current-research.php

Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond on viXra:

Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 21, 2017 5:05 am    Post subject: Reply with quoteFind all posts by spadanco

Thank you for sharing this post. Laughing
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Ginto
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 09, 2017 2:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

spadanco wrote:
Thank you for sharing this post. Laughing



Thank you for your kind words. I will also add something interesting about chemical bond.

Chemical bond and A. Einstein's special theory of relativity.

When describing the behavior of electrons in atoms or molecules, it is often assumed that the electrons move in a conservative field. But using the special theory of relativity it is easy to show that this is not so. Moreover, it follows from this that when the electrons move, the field in the molecule can not in principle be a conservative field by definition.

But if the field is not a conservative field, then our understanding and description of the chemical bond are not very good (then how do we explain and describe the chemical bond... ).


Here is the standard proof present in all university textbooks on physics:

The interaction of fixed charges (point) is completely described by the Coulomb's law:

F = k (q1*q2)/r^2

q1-------r----------q2

Let us consider the interaction of two point charges, which are at rest in the coordinate system K1.

However, in another coordinate system K2, moving relative to K1, these charges move with identical speed and their interaction becomes more difficult. Since, due to the motion of charges, the electric field at each point of space is variable (E = (k*q)/r^2, Е — the electric field) and therefore a magnetic field is generated in the system K2 (there is no magnetic field in the K1 system, since the electric field is constant). We remember that an alternating electric field generates a magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field generates an electric field.

Coulomb's law is insufficient to analyze the interaction of moving charges, and this is due to the relativistic properties of space and time and the relativistic equation of motion (the Coulomb's law has nothing to do with it). This follows from the following considerations.
Relativistic equations of motion:

dр/dt = F (1)

Is invariant and has the same form in all inertial frame of reference. So in the coordinate system K2, which moves rectilinearly and uniformly with respect to K1:

dр2/dt2 = F2 (2)

The left-hand sides of equations (1) and (2) include purely mechanical quantities (the behavior of which is known when passing from one coordinate system to another). Consequently, the left-hand sides of equations (1) and (2) can be related by some formula. But then the right parts of these equations (the equations of force) are related. Such a bond is conditioned the requirement of relativistic invariance of the equation of motion. Since speed enter the left-hand sides of equations (1) and (2), we conclude that the interaction of moving charges depends on the speed of motion and does not reduce to the Coulomb force.

Thus it is proved that the interaction of moving charges is realized not only by Coulomb force, but also by the force of another nature, called magnetic.

P.S. The Coulomb field is conservative, the magnetic field is not conservative.
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PostPosted: Wed Nov 01, 2017 5:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quoteFind all posts by Ginto

The Pauli exclusion principle and the chemical bond. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond.

The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

Review (127 pages). Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond) See pp. 88 - 104. http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

The Pauli exclusion principle and the chemical bond.

The Pauli exclusion principle — this is the fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, which asserts that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integral spin) can not simultaneously be in the same quantum state.

Wolfgang Pauli, a Swiss theoretical physicist, formulated this principle in 1925 [1]. In chemistry exactly Pauli exclusion principle often considered as a ban on the existence of three-electron bonds with a multiplicity of 1.5, but it can be shown that Pauli exclusion principle does not prohibit the existence of three-electron bonds. To do this, analyze the Pauli exclusion principle in more detail.

According to Pauli exclusion principle in a system consisting of identical fermions, two (or more) particles can not be in the same states [2]. The corresponding formulas of the wave functions and the determinant are given in the reference (this is a standard consideration of the fermion system), but we will concentrate our attention on the derivation: "... Of course, in this formulation, Pauli exclusion principle can only be applied to systems of weakly interacting particles, when one can speak (at least approximately on the states of individual particles) "[2]. That is, Pauli exclusion principle can only be applied to weakly interacting particles, when one can talk about the states of individual particles.

But if we recall that any classical chemical bond is formed between two nuclei (this is a fundamental difference from atomic orbitals), which somehow "pull" the electrons one upon another, it is logical to assume that in the formation of a chemical bond, the electrons can no longer be regarded as weakly interacting particles . This assumption is confirmed by the earlier introduced notion of a chemical bond as a separate semi-virtual particle (natural component of the particle "parts" can not be weakly interacting).

Representations of the chemical bond given in the chapter "The Principle of Heisenberg's Uncertainty and the Chemical Bond" categorically reject the statements about the chemical bond as a system of weakly interacting electrons. On the contrary, it follows from the above description that in the chemical bond, the electrons "lose" their individuality and "occupy" the entire chemical bond, that is, the electrons in the chemical bond "interact as much as possible", which directly indicates the inapplicability of the Pauli exclusion principle to the chemical bond. Moreover, the quantum-mechanical uncertainty in momentum and coordinate, in fact, strictly indicates that in the chemical bond, electrons are a system of "maximally" strongly interacting particles, and the whole chemical bond is a separate particle in which there is no place for the notion of an "individual" electron, its velocity, coordinate, energy, etc., description. This is fundamentally not true. The chemical bond is a separate particle, called us "semi-virtual particle", it is a composite particle that consists of individual electrons (strongly interacting), and spatially located between the nuclei.

Thus, the introduction of a three-electron bond with a multiplicity of 1.5 is justified from the chemical point of view (simply explains the structure of the benzene molecule, aromaticity, the structure of organic and inorganic substances, etc.) is confirmed by the Pauli exclusion principle and the logical assumption of a chemical bond as system of strongly interacting particles (actually a separate semi-virtual particle), and as a consequence the inapplicability of the Pauli exclusion principle to a chemical bond.

1. Pauli W. Uber den Zusammenhang des Abschlusses der Elektronengruppen in Atom mit der Komplexstruktur der Spektren, - Z. Phys., 1925, 31, 765-783.

2. A.S. Davydov. Quantum mechanics. Second edition. Publishing house "Science". Moscow, 1973, p. 334.

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond.

For further analysis of chemical bond, let us consider the Compton wavelength of an electron:

λc.е. = h/(me*c)= 2.4263 * 10^(-12) m

The Compton wavelength of an electron is equivalent to the wavelength of a photon whose energy is equal to the rest energy of the electron itself (the standard conclusion is given below):

λ = h/(m*v), E = h*γ, E = me*c^2, c = γ*λ, γ = c/λ

E = h*γ, E = h*(c/λ) = me*c^2, λc.е. = h/(me*c)

where λ is the Louis de Broglie wavelength, me is the mass of the electron, c, γ is the speed and frequency of light, and h is the Planck constant.
It is more interesting to consider what happens to an electron in a region with linear dimensions smaller than the Compton wavelength of an electron. According to Heisenberg uncertainty in this area, we have a quantum mechanical uncertainty in the momentum of at least m*c and a quantum mechanical uncertainty in the energy of at least me*c^2 :

Δp ≥ mе*c and ΔE ≥ me*c^2

which is sufficient for the production of virtual electron-positron pairs. Therefore, in such a region the electron can no longer be regarded as a "point object", since it (an electron) spends part of its time in the state "electron + pair (positron + electron)". As a result of the above, an electron at distances smaller than the Compton length is a system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom and its interaction should be described within the framework of quantum field theory. Most importantly, the transition to the intermediate state "electron + pair (positron + electron)" carried per time ~ λc.е./c

Δt = λc.е./c = 2.4263*10^(-12)/c = 8.1*10^(-20) s

Now we will try to use all the above-mentioned to describe the chemical bond using Einstein's theory of relativity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. To do this, let's make one assumption: suppose that the wavelength of an electron on a Bohr orbit (the hydrogen atom) is the same Compton wavelength of an electron, but in another frame of reference, and as a result there is a 137-times greater Compton wavelength (due to the effects of relativity theory):

λc.е. = h/(me*c) = 2.4263*10^(-12) m

λb. = h/(me*v)= 2*π*R = 3.31*10^(-10) m

λb./λc.е.= 137

where R= 0.527 Å, the Bohr radius.

Since the De Broglie wavelength in a hydrogen atom (according to Bohr) is 137 times larger than the Compton wavelength of an electron, it is quite logical to assume that the energy interactions will be 137 times weaker (the longer the photon wavelength, the lower the frequency, and hence the energy ). We note that 1 / 137.036 is a fine structure constant, the fundamental physical constant characterizing the force of electromagnetic interaction was introduced into science in 1916 year by the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld as a measure of relativistic corrections in describing atomic spectra within the framework of the model of the N. Bohr atom.

To describe the chemical bond, we use the Heisenberg uncertainty principle:

Δx * Δp ≥ ћ/2

Given the weakening of the energy interaction 137 times, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be written in the form:

Δx * Δp ≥ (ћ*137)/2

According to the last equation, the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the momentum of an electron in a chemical bond must be at least me * c, and the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the energy is not less than me * c ^ 2, which should also be sufficient for the production of virtual electron-positron pairs.

Therefore, in the field of chemical bonding, in this case, an electron can not be regarded as a "point object", since it (an electron) will spend part of its time in the state "electron + pair (positron + electron)", and therefore its interaction should be described in the framework of quantum field theory.
This approach makes it possible to explain how, in the case of many-electron chemical bonds (two-electron, three-electron, etc.), repulsion between electrons is overcome: since the chemical bond is actually a "boiling mass" of electrons and positrons, virtual positrons "help" overcome the repulsion between electrons. This approach assumes that the chemical bond is in fact a closed spatial bag (a potential well in the energy sense), in which "boiling" of real electrons and also virtual positrons and electrons occurs, and the "volume" of this potential bag is actually a "volume" of chemical bond and also the spatial measure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty in the position of the electron.

Strictly speaking, with such a consideration, the electron no longer has a certain energy, momentum, coordinates, and is no longer a "point particle", but actually takes up the "whole volume" of chemical bonding. It can be argued that in the chemical bond a single electron is depersonalized and loses its individuality, in fact it does not exist, but there is a "boiling mass" of real electrons and virtual positrons and electrons that by fluctuate change each other. That is, the chemical bond is actually a separate particle, as already mentioned, a semi-virtual particle. Moreover, this approach can be extended to the structure of elementary particles such as an electron or a positron: an elementary particle in this consideration is a fluctuating vacuum closed in a certain spatial bag, which is a potential well for these fluctuations.

It is especially worth noting that in this consideration, electrons are strongly interacting particles, and therefore the Pauli principle is not applicable to chemical bond (for more details, see the section "The Pauli Principle and the Chemical Bond") and does not prohibit the existence of the same three-electron bonds with a multiplicity of 1.5.

See pp. 88 - 104 Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

Bezverkhniy (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

9. Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf
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