Few things you should know about Phosphoric acid
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Few things you should know about Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid which is also known as Orthophosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name of phosphoric acid is an inorganic acid with chemical formula of H3PO4. Phosphoric acid is one of the very important and usable mineral acids. Phosphoric acid has crystal structure as monoclinic and molecular shape of pseudo-tetrahedral.

Properties and facts about phosphoric acid

• It is a non-volatile, white crystalline solid in its purest form and in manufactures through phosphate rock treatment.

• Phosphoric acid is a non-toxic odorless acid with Boiling point of 158 degree Celsius and melting point of 42.35 degree Celsius.

• It is colorless, viscous liquid when less concentrated with the density of 1.885 g/mL.

• Phosphoric acid reacts in a different way from other mineral acids as it has 3 H-atoms which are replaceable and acidic.

• It can form three different classes of salts by reacting with bases.

• It is soluble in water and alcohol and the most common sources of it are an 85% aqueous solution.

Preparation of Phosphoric acid

In Industry Phosphoric acid is produced by two general processes: Thermal process and Wet process.

Wet Process:

This process is majorly used in commercial industry.Phosphoric acid is prepared by combining sulphuric acid with tricalcium phosphate rock. The reaction of this process is:

Ca5 (PO4)3X + 5?H2SO4 + 10?H2O → 3?H3PO4 + 5?CaSO4•2?H2O + HX

Where, x may constitute OH, F, Cl and Br.

Thermal Process

Thermal process is the expensive process which produces pure phosphoric acid and is used in the food industry. In this process elemental phosphorous is burnt which produces phosphorus pentoxide which is then dissolved in diluted phosphoric acid. This process produces very pure phosphoric acid as, large impurities gets removed while extracting phosphorus in a furnace from the rock.

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