Reactions of Amines - Chloro Alkyl Amines

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Reactions of Amines - Chloro Alkyl Amines

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Amine, any member of a family of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that is derived, either in principle or in practice, from ammonia (NH3).

Naturally occurring amines include the alkaloids, which are present in certain plants; the catecholamine neurotransmitters (i.e., dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine); and a local chemical mediator, histamine, that occurs in most animal tissues.



Aniline, ethanolamines, and several other amines are major industrial commodities used in making rubber, dyes, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic resins and fibres and for a host of other applications. Most of the numerous methods for the preparation of amines may be broadly divided into two groups: (1) chemical reduction (replacement of oxygen with hydrogen atoms in the molecule) of members of several other classes of organic nitrogen compounds and (2) reactions of ammonia or amines with organic compounds.

Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on whether one, two, or three of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia have been replaced by organic groups. In chemical notation these three classes are represented as RNH2, R2NH, and R3N, respectively. A fourth category consists of quaternary ammonium compounds, which are obtained by replacement of all four hydrogen atoms of the ammonium ion, NH4+; an anion is necessarily associated (R4N+X−). Amines are also classified as aliphatic, having only aliphatic groups attached, or aromatic, having one or more aryl groups attached. They may be open-chain, in which the nitrogen is not part of a ring, or cyclic, in which it is a member of a ring (generally aliphatic).


Properties Of Amines

Physical properties

Distinctive odours that are fishy to putrid characterize the lower-molecular-weight amines. They are gases at room temperature or are easily vaporized liquids. Aliphatic amines are less dense than water, having densities in the range 0.63 to 0.74 gram per cubic cm; aromatic amines are typically slightly heavier than water (e.g., the density of aniline is 1.02 grams per cubic cm). With increasing size, they become less volatile; the odour decreases and eventually becomes unnoticeable, although some diamines have offensive odours. For example, H2N(CH2)4NH2, called putrescine, and H2N(CH2)5NH2, called cadaverine, are foul-smelling compounds found in decaying flesh. Amines are colourless; aliphatic amines are transparent to ultraviolet light, but aromatic amines display strong absorption of certain wavelengths. Amines with fewer than six carbons mix with water in all proportions. The aliphatic amines are stronger bases than ammonia, and the aromatic ones are substantially weaker. The basicity is measured in terms of the pKb value, which is equal to −logKb, where Kb is the equilibrium constant for the reaction B + H3O+ ⇌ BH+ + H2O (B is the amine). Thus, a larger pKb value indicates greater strength as a base. For comparison, the pKb of ammonia is 4.75. Quaternary ammonium hydroxides are very strong bases, but the chlorides are not basic.


Most aliphatic amines are not highly toxic, and many are harmless, natural components of foods and pharmaceuticals. In high concentrations, however, the smaller amines are highly irritating to the skin and especially to the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, to which they can cause acute damage upon prolonged exposure. Larger amines (12 or more carbon atoms) are usually less irritating. Aromatic amines are also irritants and can be absorbed through the skin. They may be dangerous poisons. Aniline, for example, destroys the hemoglobin of blood, and prolonged exposure has been linked with cancer. Amines can be corrosive to some metals and plastics; they should therefore be stored in glass or steel containers.


Molecular shape and configuration

An amine molecule has the shape of a somewhat flattened triangular pyramid, with the nitrogen atom at the apex. An unshared electron pair is localized above the nitrogen atom. In quaternary ammonium ions this region is occupied by a substituent, forming a nearly regular tetrahedron with the nitrogen atom at its centre.


Occurrence And Sources Of Amines

Aliphatic amines occur in nature, principally as products of the putrefaction of protein material, but they are also present in living tissue (e.g., histamine, a cyclic aliphatic amine). The methylamines occur in small amounts in some plants. Many polyfunctional amines (i.e., those having other functional groups in the molecule) occur as alkaloids in plants—for example, mescaline, 2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine; the cyclic amines nicotine, atropine, morphine, and cocaine; and the quaternary salt choline, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride, which is present in nerve synapses and in plant and animal cells.


Alkyl Amines Market Challenges

Harmful effects of alkyl amine and high maintenance cost

Exposure to alkyl amines is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and lungs. Moreover, the toxic nature of Alkylamines further incurs high maintenance and transportation costs. The harmful effects and high cost of alkyl amine acts as a challenging factor to the market growth. Additionally, fluctuating prices for raw materials and foreign currency can directly impact the overall market growth of alkyl amines. As Ethyl alcohol, ammonia and factory gasses are the primary raw materials used in the production of alkyl amines.

Emergence of COVID-19 the Pandemic

The pandemic is affecting operations of various industries such as agriculture, oil and gas, construction, packaging, and others. As, Alkyl Amines products are extensively used in these industries, the declining operations of these industries is directly affecting Alkyl Amines market growth. Moreover, it is expected that the outbreak of COVID-19 will be seen in the whole year of 2020, and a few months in 2021 and will have its major impact on the economy and global trade volume. According to World Trade Organization (WTO), global trade volumes are projected to decline between 13% and 32% in 2020 as a result of the economic impact of COVID-19.


The global alkyl amines market is expected to grow at a rapid pace over the next seven years. Increasing solvent consumption from end-use industries such as infrastructure and automotive is expected to drive the overall market from 2015 to 2022. Diversified product line used across numerous applications is expected to benefit the alkyl amines consumption.


Major product includes methylamines, ethylamine, propylamine, butylamines, and cyclohexylamines. Methylamines dominated the global product in terms of demand over the past few years and are expected to continue its dominance over the forecast period. Propylamines are expected to witness higher growth over the forecast period. Surge in demand for propylamines from applications including agrochemicals, water treatment, and pharmaceuticals is expected to benefit the alkyl amines market growth.


Solvents are an extensive end-use alkyl amine industry. Major alkyl amine based solvents include dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), and dimethylacetamide (DMAC). DMF is a widely used solvent in industrial applications.


The alkyl amines industry is moderately fragmented in nature. The presence of numerous industry participants makes the market highly competitive. Hence frequent price wars, M&As, and various strategic decisions are witnessed. Entry barriers are high for the new entrants. Low switching costs create room for buyers and increase competition among the business players. Major industry participants invest to create improved products to gain a competitive advantage over fellow participants.



Shree Ganesh Chemicals is the manufacturing of Chloro Alkyl Amines. We expertise in chemistry for pharmaceutical intermediates and we are the best Chloro Alkyl Amines Manufacturer in Ankleshwar, Gujarat India.
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Re: Reactions of Amines - Chloro Alkyl Amines

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No commercial posts please. Commercial has to be charged.
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